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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 15  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 127-134

Comparative study of midazolam, dexmedetomidine, and ketamine as an adjuvant to lidocaine in intravenous regional anesthesia for forearm and hand surgeries


Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Abdelwahab A Saleh
2 Safwat Street Shubra Elkheima, Alqualubia
Egypt
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/AZMJ.AZMJ_32_17

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Background Intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA) is an ideal method of providing anesthesia for minor surgical procedures to the extremities performed on an ambulatory basis. This study aimed to study the effects of adding midazolam, dexmedetomidine, or ketamine as an adjuvant to lidocaine in IVRA during forearm and hand surgeries and examine their benefits and complications. Patients and methods A total of 120 patients were included, aged 40–60 years (American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I–II), undergoing hand and forearm, from April 2015 to August 2016. Patients were randomly divided into four equal groups. Lidocaine-only group (LL group) received IVRA using 40 ml of lidocaine 0.5% (3 mg/kg). Lidocaine plus midazolam group (LM group) received IVRA using 40 ml of lidocaine 0.5% (3 mg/kg) plus midazolam 50 µg/kg added as an adjuvant. Lidocaine plus dexmedetomidine group (LD group) received IVRA using 40 ml of lidocaine 0.5% (3 mg/kg) plus dexmedetomidine 1 µg/kg added as an adjuvant. Lidocaine plus ketamine group (LK group) received IVRA using 40 ml of lidocaine 0.5% (3 mg/kg) plus ketamine 0.5 mg/kg added as an adjuvant. The time of onset, duration, and quality of analgesia; levels of sensory and motor block; heart rate; mean arterial blood pressure; and visual analog score were recorded. Adverse effects of hematoma, injection pain, skin erythema, sedation, and hallucinations were recorded. Results The onset time of sensory and motor blocks was significantly shorter in the adjuvant groups LM, LD, LK in comparison with the control group LL. The grade of sensory and motor blocks was significantly better in groups LM, LD, and LK in comparison with the LL group. The onset time of tourniquet pain was significantly shorter in the control group LL in comparison with adjuvant groups LM, LD, and LK. There was a significant increase in fentanyl requirements in the control LL group compared with adjuvant LM, LD, and LK groups. The duration of postoperative analgesia was significantly prolonged in adjuvant groups LM, LD, and LK compared with the control LL group. Hematoma, injection pain, cutaneous erythema, and hallucination were reported as postoperative complications. Conclusion The addition of midazolam, dexmedetomidine, or ketamine to lidocaine for IVRA improved the quality of intraoperative and postoperative analgesia with minimal adverse effects and higher patients and surgeon satisfaction.


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